Counting carbon or counting coal? Anchoring climate governance in fossil fuel-based accountability frameworks

This analysis explores schemes for the monitoring, reporting and verification of fossil fuels, and points to a hybrid fossil fuel-based accountability framework that accounts for infrastructure and production volumes. Such transparency would provide opportunities for democratic oversight of climate governance efforts and channels to hold states accountable for their climate performance.




The impact of climate legislation on trade-related carbon emissions, 1997–2017

There is considerable anxiety about the international impact of unilateral action on climate change, particularly around ‘carbon leakage’. Looking at the impact of national climate change policy and legislation over the past two decades, this paper finds no evidence it has increased international carbon leakage.


Global trends in climate litigation: 2021 snapshot

This is the third report in our Global trends in climate litigation series, focusing on cases filed or concluded between May 2020 and May 2021. It provides an update of known case numbers, metrics and categorisations, and considers some of the most relevant trends in the arguments and strategies employed by litigants.


Induced innovation and international environmental agreements: evidence from the ozone regime

This paper provides evidence that the Montreal Protocol’s restrictions on CFCs triggered a substantial increase in research and innovation on alternatives to ozone-depleting molecules and suggests such international environmental agreements can dynamically improve the benefit-cost equation of environmental protection and may therefore also be useful to dealing with current problems such as climate change.